Handbook of the Sociology of Youth in BRICS Countries

Tom Dwyer, Mikhail K Gorshkov, Ishwar Modi, Chunling Li, Mokong Simon Mapadimeng (Eds)

ISBN: 978-981-3148-38-3 (hardcover) -ISBN: 978-981-3148-40-6 (ebook)

World Scientific, 2018




Youth are, by definition, the future. This book brings initial analyses to bear on youth in the five BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, which are home to nearly half of the world’s youth. Very little is known about these youth outside of their own countries since the mainstream views on “youth” and “youth culture” are derived from the available literature on youth in the industrialized West, which is home to a small part of the world’s youth. This book aims to help fill in this gap.

The handbook examines the state of youth, their past, present and permits the development of insights about future. The BRICS countries have all engaged in development processes and some remarkable improvements in young people’s lives over recent decades are documented. However, the chapters also show that these gains can be undermined by instabilities, poor decisions and external factors in those countries. Periods of economic growth, political progress, cultural opening up and subsequent reversals rearticulate differently in each society. The future of youth is sharply impacted by recent transformations of economic, political and social realities. As new opportunities emerge and the influence of tradition on youth’s lifestyles weakens and as their norms and values change, the youth enter into conflict with dominant expectations and power structures.

The topics covered in the book include politics, education, health, employment, leisure, Internet, identities, inequalities and demographics. The chapters provide original insights into the development of the BRICS countries, and place the varied mechanisms of youth development in context. This handbook serves as a reference to those who are interested in having a better understanding of today’s youth. Readers will become acquainted with many issues that are faced today by young people and understand that through fertile dialogues and cooperation, youth can play a role in shaping the future of the world.


  • History of Concepts and Theoretical and Methodological Assumptions into Research on Youth:
    • Knowledge about Youth in Brazil and the Challenges in Consolidating This Field of Study (Marilia Pontes Sposito)
    • Historical, Theoretical and Methodological Background for Youth Studies in Russia (Mikhail K Gorshkov and Frants E Sheregi)
    • Sociology of Youth: Substantive and Conceptual Issues (N Jayaram)
    • Chinese Youth Studies in a Changing Society (Meng Lei)
    • Review of Historical and Contemporary Concepts and Theoretical Assumptions in Youth Studies of South Africa (Mokong Simon Mapadimeng)
  • Demographic Characteristics of Youth:
    • Youth in Brazil: Concepts, Issues and Socio-Demographic Characteristics (Celi Scalon and Lygia Costa)
    • Demographics of Youth in Russia (Sergei V Zakharov and Ekaterina S Mitrofanova)
    • Indian Youth Population: Socio-Demographic Characteristics (Vinod Chandra)
    • Demographic Characteristics of Chinese Youth (Zhang Yi and Tian Feng)
    • The Demographic Profile of Youth in South Africa: Past, Present and Future (Martin E Palamuleni)
  • Identity and Generation:
    • Youth Generations and Processes of Identity Formation in Brazil (Wivian Weller and Lucélia de Moraes Braga Bassalo)
    • Russian Youth: Specifics of Identities and Values (Svetlana V Mareeva)
    • Contemporary Youth: Change of Referent, Loss of Identity (Ashok Kaul and Chittaranjan Das Adhikary)
    • Youth Culture and Social Ecology: State, Market, Technology, and Grassroots Participation (Meng Lei)
    • South African Youth Identity and Generation (Jayanathan Govender)
  • Consumption and Leisure:
    • Young Brazilians: Free Time, Leisure, and Sociabilities: An Analytical Mosaic of National Research Data (Elmir de Almeida, Juarez Dayrell and Paulo Carrano)
    • Consumption and Leisure in Russia (Polina M Kozyreva, Alfiya E Nizamova and Alexander I Smirnov)
    • Leisure and Consumption of Youth in India (Ishwar Modi and P S Vivek)
    • Consumption Patterns of the Contemporary Chinese Youth: Focusing on the Inter-Class and Rural–Urban Division (Zhu Di)
    • Leisure and Consumption: Youth Escapism in South Africa Through Illegal Substances (Claudia Martinez-Mullen and Mokong Simon Mapadimeng)
  • Family, Marriage, and Sexuality:
    • Youth, Sexuality and the Family in Contemporary Brazil (Maria Luiza Heilborn)
    • Family, Marriage, and Sexuality in Russia (Polina M Kozyreva and Yulia P Lezhnina)
    • Family, Marriage, and Sexuality: Valuable Insights on 21st Century Youth (Sudeshna Basu Mukherjee)
    • Love, Marriage, Family and Sex: Contemporary Chinese Youth (Tian Feng)
    • The Role of Family Structure in Building Youth: Psychosocial Competence in South Africa (Acheampong Yaw Amoateng)
  • The State and Political Values:
    • Political Culture and Political Values of the Brazilian Youth (Marcello Baquero and Rute Angelo Baquero)
    • The “Zero” Generation: Ideological and Political Participation (Vladimir V Petuhov)
    • Towards Understanding Youth and Politics in India (Anand Kumar)
    • A Study of Chinese Elite University Students and Graduates (Lu Peng)
    • Online and Offline Political Participation by South African Youth (Chilombo Mbenga)
  • Education and Employment:
    • Brazilian Youth: In School and in Work (Maria Carla Corrochano and Marilena Nakano)
    • Education and Employment in Russia (David L Konstantinovskiy)
    • Youth, Education, and Employment in India: Harvesting Gold (Aarti Srivastava)
    • Education and Employment of Chinese Youth (Li Chunling)
    • Education, Skills, Economy, and Youth Unemployment in South Africa (Mokong Simon Mapadimeng)
  • Internet Participation and Communication:
    • Internet, Youth, and Ideology in Brazil (Tom Dwyer)
    • Youth and Digital Space in Russia: Internet-Participation and Communications (Irina O Tyurina)
    • Internet Participation and Communication with a Focus on Youth (Rajesh Gill)
    • Youth and Internet Participation in Chinese Context: Forerunner of Civic Life Online (Shi Yunqing)
    • Youth and ICT in South Africa: Cell Phones, Social Media and Students’ Academic Performance? (Kiran Odhav and Karabo Gloria Mohapanele)
  • Conclusion and Perspectives for the Future:
    • Empirical Studies of Youth in Contemporary Brazilian Civilization and Some Implications for the BRICS (Tom Dwyer)
    • Young People in Russia and Their Life Plans: Present and Future (Mikhail K Gorshkov and Frants E Sheregi)
    • Conclusion and Future Perspectives in India (Ishwar Modi)
    • Conclusion: Chinese Youth Face Both Opportunities and Challenges (Li Peilin)
    • Conclusion on South African Youth and Future Prospects (Mokong Simon Mapadimeng and Jayanathan Govender)